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[转]世界十大地质奇观  

2009-06-05 11:08:03|  分类: 转载推荐 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

亚利桑那州和犹他州之间的狼丘 The Wave (between Arizona and Utah - USA)

在美国犹他州和亚利桑那州交界的狼丘(Coyote Buttes),隐藏着一个名叫The Wave的大自然砂岩雕塑艺术品。中文里Wave是波浪,波涛的意思,确切地表示了这个景观的特点,在不到200平方米的山间缝隙中,血红的砂岩如海浪翻腾,刚和柔的奇妙结合,令人叹为观止。

  狼丘属于帕瑞亚谷(Paria Canyon)的一个部分,整个帕瑞亚谷跨越犹他州和亚利桑那州,由美国土地管理局(BLM,Bureau of Land Management)管辖。帕瑞亚谷开放的探险区域有三个部分,分别是南狼丘(Coyote Buttes South),北狼丘(Coyote Buttes North)以及帕瑞亚谷河道(Paria Canyon Overnight)。石波就处在北狼丘的尽头,大约要在一个景色犹如外星球的荒野里步行一个半小时。

A red-rock stunner on the border of Arizona and Utah, The Wave is made of 190-million-year-old sand dunes that have turned to rock. This little-known formation is accessible only on foot via a three-mile hike and highly regulated.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

亚利桑那州羚羊峡谷 Antelope Canyon (Arizona - USA)

  羚羊峡谷(Antelope Canyon),是世界上著名的狭缝型峡谷之一,也是知名的摄影景点。其位于美国亚利桑纳州北方,最靠近的城市为佩吉市(Page, Arizona),属于纳瓦荷原住民保护区。羚羊峡谷在地形上分为两个独立的部份,称为上羚羊峡谷(Upper Antelope Canyon)与下羚羊峡谷(Lower Antelope Canyon)。

  是谁第一次发现羚羊峡谷的记录已不可考。据纳瓦荷族的历史传述,该地过去是叉角羚羊栖息处,峡谷里也常有羚羊漫步,这也是此峡谷名为羚羊峡谷的由来。老一辈的纳瓦荷族曾将此地视为静思与大灵沟通的栖息地。 羚羊峡谷如同其他狭缝型峡谷般,是柔软的砂岩经过百万年的各种侵蚀力所形成。主要是暴洪(Flash flood)的侵蚀,其次则是风蚀。该地在季风季节里常出现暴洪流入峡谷中,由于突然暴增的雨量,造成暴洪的流速相当快,加上狭窄通道将河道缩小,因此垂直侵蚀力也相对变大,形成了羚羊峡谷底部的走廊,以及谷壁上坚硬光滑、如同流水般的边缘。

The most visited and photographed slot canyon in the American Southwest, the Antelope Canyon is located on Navajo land near Page, Arizona. It includes two separate, photogenic slot canyon sections, referred to individually as Upper Antelope Canyon --or “The Crack”-- and Lower Antelope Canyon --or “The Corkscrew.” The Navajo name for Upper Antelope Canyon is Tse' bighanilini, which means "the place where water runs through rocks." Lower Antelope Canyon is Hasdestwazi, or "spiral rock arches." Both are located within the LeChee Chapter of the Navajo Nation.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

伯利兹城的大蓝洞 Great Blue Hole (Belize)

这个完美的大蓝洞位于洪都拉斯伯利兹海岸附近,是一个水下陷洞,洞宽为1000英尺(约305米),洞深400英尺(约123米),形成于冰河时期的石灰岩深洞,是传说中的地理学奇景,冰河时期是它个干涸的大洞,冰川融化,海平面的升高让它变成了现在的样子,如今它是旅游者的圣地,潜水者的天堂。

  Part of the Lighthouse Reef System, The Great Blue Hole lies approximately 60 miles off the mainland out of Belize City. A large, almost perfectly circular hole approximately one quarter of a mile (0.4 km) across, it’s one of the most astounding dive sites to be found anywhere on earth. Inside this hole, the water is 480 feet (145 m) deep and it is the depth of water which gives the deep blue color that causes such structures throughout the world to be known as "blue holes."

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

墨西哥“水晶洞” Crystal Cave of the Giants (Mexico)

  墨西哥奇瓦瓦的奈卡矿(Cueva de los Cristales)又被为“水晶教堂”,包含着世界上最大的自然水晶体——长36英尺的半透明石膏柱。这个洞穴位于地下950英尺处,蕴藏着大量的铅、锌、铜、银和金,蜿蜒在地下长达0.5英里。在奈卡矿更深处水晶洞里,石灰石岩空穴中呈现一个马蹄印外形,宽30英尺,长90英尺。

  2600万年前,奈卡山脉出现火山活跃,布满了高温硬石膏灰。当山脉之下的岩浆冷却,以及温度下降,硬石膏便开始溶解。硬石膏缓慢地将水和硫酸盐、钙分子浓缩,数百万年以来沉积在这个洞穴里,进而形成了巨大透明石膏水晶体。

  Found deep inside a mine in southern Chihuahua Mexico, these crystals were formed in a natural cave totally enclosed in bedrock. A geode full of spectacular crystals as tall as pine trees, and in some cases greater in circumference, they are a translucent gold and silver in color and come in many incredible forms and shapes. The Crystal Cave of the Giants was discovered within the same limestone body that hosts the silver-zinc-lead ore bodies exploited by the mine and it was probably dissolved by the same hydrothermal fluids that deposited the metals with the gypsum being crystallized during the waning stages of mineralization.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

撒哈拉之眼 毛里塔尼亚 Eye of the Sahara (Mauritania)

在撒哈拉大沙漠西南部毛里塔尼亚境内有个十分壮观的圆形地貌,直径为30英里,这就是有名的“撒哈拉眼”。最初人们以为是陨石落下地面形成的,但后来地质学家认为这是地面隆起并受到侵蚀的产物,至于圆形的成因仍然是个谜。

This spectacular landform in Mauritania in the southwestern part of the Sahara desert is so huge with a diameter of 30 miles that it is visible from space. Called Richat Structure --or the Eye of the Sahara-- the The formation was originally thought to be caused by a meteorite impact but now geologists believe it is a product of uplift and erosion. The cause of its circular shape is still a mystery.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

巴西蓝湖洞 Blue Lake Cave (Brazil)

巴西马托格罗索地区拥有很多神奇的地下湖泊。世界著名的“蓝湖洞”就是其中之一。其内部的钟乳石、石笋数不胜数,更有美不胜收的辽阔无边的蓝湖令人赞叹不已。蓝湖各种各样的地质风貌令人叫绝,内湖深蓝色的水更使游客留恋忘返。

  Mato Grosso do Sul region in Brazil (and especially the quiet town of Bonito) boasts many marvelous underground lakes: Gruta do Lago Azul, Gruta do Mimoso, Aquário Natural. The world famous "Gruta do Lago Azul” (Blue Lake Cave) is a natural monument whose interior is formed by stalactites, stalagmites and a huge and wonderful blue lake. The beauty of the lake is something impressive. The Blue Lake Cave has a big variety of geological formation but impresses mainly for the deep blue colored water of its inside lake.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

爱尔兰巨人堤 Giants Causeway (Ireland)

巨人之路位于北爱尔兰东北海岸,看起来就象巨型石阶,把它叫做“巨人之路”再恰当不过。它是一座古老火山喷发的产物。这些玄武岩柱乍看像四方形,其实大部分都是六角形,不过也有一些是四角形、五角形甚至六角形的。最高约为12米。悬崖上部分凝固熔岩达28米厚。2005年被列为英国第四大自然奇观。

  An area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the Giants Causeway is a result of an ancient volcanic eruption. Located on the north-east coast of Northern Ireland, most of its columns are hexagonal, although there are also some with four, five, seven and eight sides. The tallest are about 12 meters (36 ft) high, and the solidified lava in the cliffs is 28 meters thick in places. In a 2005 poll of Radio Times readers, the causeway was named as the fourth greatest natural wonder in the United Kingdom.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

乌兹别克斯坦的地狱之门 Hell Gate (Uzbekistan)

  1971年,地质工作者在中亚乌兹别克斯坦达瓦札发现一处巨大的天然气地下贮存库,于是就了挖掘工作。这个大洞就是开采该地下天然气时其钻探塌陷后所留下的这个巨大的坑洞。为防止有毒气体泄露,钻探队员点燃了此处,并且一直昼夜燃烧至今,没有停息。于是,这个天然气坑有“地狱之门”之称。

  Called by locals The Door to Hell, this place in Uzbekistan is situated near the small town of Darvaz. When geologists were drilling for gas, 35 years ago, they suddenly found an underground cavern that was so big, all the drilling site with all the equipment and camps got deep deep under the ground. None dared to go down there because the cavern was filled with gas, so they ignited it so that no poisonous gas could come out of the hole, and since then, it has been burning. Nobody knows how many tons of excellent gas has been burned for all those years but it just seems to be infinite.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

澳大利亚波浪岩 Wave Rock (Australia)

  波浪岩的构成是经过长期风沙雨水侵蚀加上每天白天晚上剧烈的温差而慢慢产生出整个波浪的形状。在波浪岩表面上的线条是被含有炭和氢的雨水冲刷时带走表面的化学物质﹐同时产生化学作用﹐因此在波浪岩表面形成黑色﹐灰色﹐红色﹐咖啡色和土黄色的条纹。在偏西的阳光照射下,线条颜色最鲜明的时候,波浪造型更加栩栩如生。 波岩石的附近还有澳洲的原住民 (Aboriginal) 遗留下来的史前壁画。

  The Wave Rock is a natural rock formation located in western Australia. It derives its name from the fact that it is shaped like a tall breaking ocean wave. The total outcrop covers several hectares; the "wave" part of the rock is about 15 meters high and approximately 110 meters long. One aspect of Wave Rock rarely shown on photographs is the retaining wall about halfway up the rock. This follows the contours and allows rainwater to be collected in a dam. It was constructed in 1951 by the Public Works Department, and such walls are common on many similar rocks in the wheatbelt.

 

[转]世界十大地质奇观 - 热带鱼 - 热带鱼的博客

菲律宾巧克力山 Chocolate Hills (Philippines)

  巧克力山是菲律宾保和岛(Bohol )中部,卡门(Carmen )附 近一处自然奇景。由1268个圆锥形小山丘组成的巧克力山,高度介于 40到120公尺之间,居高临下,好像一个个堆放在地上的干草堆。每 到夏季,“干草堆”都会干枯,转为褐色,犹如一排排的巧克力排放 在大地上,巧克力山这个叫人垂涎欲滴的名字由此而来。

  Composed of around 1,268 perfectly cone-shaped hills of about the same size spread over an area of more than 50 square kilometres (20 sq mi), this highly unusual geological formation, called Chocolate Hills, is located in Bohol, Philippines. There are a number of hypotheses regarding the formation of the hills. These include simple limestone weathering, sub-oceanic volcanism, the uplift of the seafloor and a more recent theory which maintains that as an ancient active volcano self-destructed, it spewed huge blocks of stone which were then covered with limestone and later thrust forth from the ocean bed.

来自:http://www.long.cc/edu/html/2009/0401/77944-5.htm

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